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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)       e-ISSN: 2395-0056
                        Volume: 07 Issue: 05 | May 2020                 www.irjet.net                                                                     p-ISSN: 2395-0072

                            On Off Controller for COVID 19 Management



                                                     Shajil Anthru 1


                             1 Principal, Government Polytechnic College, Vennikulam, Kerala, India

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        Abstract -  World  is  under  COVID  19  pandemic  and  has   3.  How  far  we  can  relax  the  social  distancing  for
        disrupted the normal life around the globe. This paper confirm   effective and economical functioning of society?

        that  control  engineers  can  have  a  stake  in  managing  this   1.2 Reproduction Number (RN)
        pandemic.  The pandemic is an unstable, open loop system.
        There are different techniques in controlling an unstable, open   The basic reproduction number for Covid pandemic
        loop  system  in  engineering.  This  same  techniques  applies   is  high.  This  number  depends  upon  the  density  of  the
        to Covid management. As a case study, this paper considers   community,  general  health  of  the  population,  its  medical
        data pertaining to Covid patients in Kerala from January 30,   infrastructure,  resources  and  the  response  of  the
        2020  to  May  5,  2020.  A control  system design  with On  off   community.  With Covid pandemic, fatality rate has gone up.
        strategy to control two parameters that influences the number   Fatality rate is also variable and depend on many factors
        of  Covid  patients  and  predictive  planning  for  COVID   such as age, physical fitness, present pathologies, region and
                                                               access  to  health  care.  A  large  percentage  of  people  who
        management based on this strategy are the highlights.   contract  the  disease  develop  a  viral  pneumonia.  Many
                                                               patients require artificial ventilation. If the number exceeds
        Key  Words:  Covid  19,  On  off  Control,  Curve  flattening,   the capacity of Intensive care units to accommodate them,
        Reproduction output, Mitigation, suppression, Lockdown, Duty   fatality rate will increase. Demand for flattening the curve
        cycle                                                  arise from this. A high sharp curve show a surge of infections
                                                               in a brief time period.
        1. INTRODUCTION
                                                                      Mitigation and Suppression are the two approaches
        This World is under COVID 19 pandemic. Time proves we   followed throughout the world for containing this pandemic.
        are fighting against our own shadow. The entire mankind is   Mitigation  focuses  on  slowing,  not  stopping  the  spread.
        trying hard to contain the  unknown  enemy and to grow.   Suppression  aims  at  reverse  epidemic  growth.    For
        Understandably,  the  country  which  emerges  with  a   mitigation  RN  reduces  but  remains  greater  than  1.  For
        successful  exit  strategy  first  will  win  and  rule  the  globe.   suppression, RN is smaller than 1.This is accomplished by
        Epidemiologists, statisticians, biologists and health officials
        are  the  super  men  or  super  women  whom  all  look  for  a   implementing  lockdown, by  restricted  travel,  home
        resolution.  Yet  another  community  has  a  stake  in   confinement, social distancing, etc. These restrictions are
        formulating the exit strategy, and surely it is none other than   Non Pharmaceutical Interventions.
        engineers. Covid 19 is not is not all an engineering problem.
        But engineering has the power and capability to solve the   2. Engineering the Control
        problems of other domains too. Observe the pattern of Covid
        19 pandemic. It is an unstable, open loop system. With no     This is the point where the control engineers can
        control,  it  grows  exponentially.  Theoretically  all  systems   interfere. A systematic strategy based on feedback can be
        analogous to a control system, can be stabilized effectively   designed to change RO through the modulation of NPI's. The
        and efficiently by applying the principles of control theory.    strategy alternates between suppression and mitigation to
                                                               maintain  the  spread  at  a  desired  level.  There  are  many
                                                               challenges.
        1.1   Challenges    and    problems    in   COVID                1.      Covid 19 is a very peculiar disease.
        management                                                       2.      Biologists  still  do  not  know  why  some
                                                                             people  experience  fairly  mild  symptoms
               Three important problems face us at this moment of            while others feel the extreme.
        crisis. They are:                                                3.        No  one  can  explain  why  men  are  facing
            1.  How  to  diminish  the  rate  of  propagation  of  this      more fatality.
               virus?                                                    4.      There is a long incubation period of 14 days
            2.  How to bring the outbreak under control?                     between infection and symptoms.
                                                                         5.      Even persons can get re infected.

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