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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)       e-ISSN: 2395-0056
                        Volume: 07 Issue: 06 | June 2020                 www.irjet.net                                                                     p-ISSN: 2395-0072

        5000 Celsius can be achieved in milliseconds. Ironically this
        is the basic disadvantage of this technology. Creating and
        maintaining a chamber to withstand a temperature of above
        10000 degree Celsius is practically not feasible, particularly
        when you need the waste management system in bulk and
        less time. [5]
        Here  the  incineration  employing  controlled  pyrolysis
        technique will be useful. The only factor to be considered is
        the selection of the controller for temperature of chamber.

        The major factors influencing the pyrolysis include chemical
        composition  of  the  feedstock,  cracking  temperature  and   Figure 1 ( Conversion and Condensation machine)
        heating  rate,  operation  pressure,  reactor  type,  residence   which  is  collected  and  passed  into  the  condensation
        time and application of catalyst.  Temperature dominates the   chamber.  In  the  condensation  chamber,  the  gas  is
        cracking reaction of the materials. Not all of the materials   condensated and a liquid is obtained as the output.
        can be cracked by increasing the temperature. Van der Waals
        force  is  the  force  between  the  molecules,  which  attracts   The response of the system and the quantity of the fuel
        molecules together and prevents the collapse of molecules.   generated is controlled by the manner in which the pyrolysis
        When  the  vibration  of  molecules  is  great  enough,  the   temperature is controlled inside the conversion chamber. An
        molecules  will  evaporate  from  the  surface  of  the  object.   electronic  controller  is  designed  for  serving  this  purpose
        However, the carbon chain will be broken if energy induced   which acts as the key element of this machine.
        by van der Waals force along the polymer chains is greater   2.3 PID controller for the process
        than the enthalpy of the C-C bond in the chain. This is the
        reason why high molecular weight polymer is decomposed    A  PID  controller  is  used  as  the  basic  temperature
        rather  than  is  boiled  when  it  is  heated.  In  theory,  the   controller. (Figure 3)
        temperature of thermal breaking the C-C bonds should be
        constant for a given type of plastic (polymer). Therefore if   The PID controller is the summation of P, I and D control
        incineration is done through controlled pyrolysis, even the   whose equations are given in the Figure 2.
        plastic waste associated with the no-segregated waste will
        also be processed.
        The other operating thermal dynamic parameter is heating
        rate. The term “heating rate” in this field means the increase
        of temperature per unit time.  Normally, in a fast or flash                   Figure 2
        pyrolysis, heating rate refers to the temperature change of
        the  plastic  from  it  dropped  on  the  hot  surface  till
        decomposed and vaporized.  Once the feedstock is heated to
        the  cracking  temperature,  the  temperature  remains
        relatively constant until all feedstock has been pyrolyzed.
        Another important factor is Operating pressure. The boiling
        points of the pyrolysis products are increased under higher
        pressure. Therefore, under pressurized environment heavy
        hydrocarbons are further pyrolyzed instead of vaporized at                    Figure 3.
        given operation temperature. In effect, under pressurized
        pyrolysis, more energy is required for further hydrocarbon   2.4 Procedure for experimentation
        cracking. It was also found that high pressure increases the
        yield of non-condensable gases and decreases the yield of   Simulated hospital waste (cotton + plastic = 2: 1) is fed in the
        liquid products.                                       primary conversion chamber.  A continuous water supply is
                                                               maintained for cooling the rubber beading of the input door
        2.2 Experimentation equipment
                                                               and  the  condensation  chamber.  The  system  settles  much
                                                               faster at 450 degree centigrade and the fuel starts flowing
        The  prototype  equipment  used  for  experimentation  and   from 25 minutes.The entire medical waste is found to be
        conversion machine is shown in Figure 1. The machine has   transformed into fuel and non toxic fumes of less volume.
        two major parts: Conversion and Condensation chambers.   The  time  taken  for  complete  the  process  of  processing
        Conversion chamber consists of a chamber in which plastic   medical waste of 250 gm is less than one hour.
        waste are fed. An outlet is connected from the conversion
        chamber to the condensation chamber. When plastic waste
        undergoes high temperature and pyrolysis, gases are formed

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