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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)       e-ISSN: 2395-0056
                        Volume: 07 Issue: 06 | June 2020                 www.irjet.net                                                                     p-ISSN: 2395-0072

                             Medical Waste Management in Covid 19 era


                                                     Shajil Anthru 1

          1 Principal. Mahakavi Vennikulam Gopalakurup Memorial Government Polytechnic College, Vennikulam, Kerala
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        Abstract  –  Application  of  Instrumentation  will  have  a   primarily  performed  on-site  at  hospitals  in  dedicated
        greater impact in solving most of the problems arising during   medical  waste  facilities.  To  ensure  that  the  treatment
        and  in  the  post  covid  era.  Current  scenario  of  pandemic   method provides the proper environment for the destruction
        demands for a faster, efficient management of medical waste.   of microbes, test indicators for bacterial spores measure the
        For countries struggling to deal with the pandemic and the   treatment effectiveness. Microbiological spores are among
        economic  crisis  thereupon,  it  is  difficult  to  bring  in  newer   the  most  difficult  of  biologicals  to  destroy,  so  when  the
        technologies.  In  this  context,  it  is  better  to  adopt  the   indicator package cannot be cultured after treatment, the
        instrumentation involved in Controlled pyrolysis for Medical   waste is considered properly treated. [1]
        waste disposal.                                        1.3 Incineration to Vitrification

        Key  Words:   COVID  19,  Medical  waste,  controlled   Incineration is the controlled burning of the medical waste in
        pyrolysis, PID controller, Instrumentation             a dedicated incinerator. Waste with heating value over 3500
                                                               kcal/kg is processed in a pyrolysis unit while lower heating
        1. INTRODUCTION                                        value waste is burned in a single-chamber incinerator. Waste
                                                               is typically heterogeneous, and if the combustible fraction is
        The World is under COVID 19 pandemic. Time proves we are   below 60 percent, it may not be acceptable for incineration.
        fighting  against  our  own  shadow.  The  entire  mankind  is   Overly  wet  waste  (over  30  percent  water  by  weight)  is
        trying hard to contain the unknown enemy. Biologists, health   probably not good for incineration either as it will require
        officials and governments across the globe are trying hard to   excessive quantities of assist gas/fuel. Incineration is an old
        contain and mute the effects of Covid 19. With the increase of   technology  and  is  widely  used  for  all  sorts  of  waste.
        patients  daily,  health  workers  are  toiling  with  various   Individual  buildings  had  their  own  waste  incinerators  in
        strategies  and  protocols.  They  have  to  fight  the  disease   many cases. Incinerators have a bad reputation because of
        inflicted and ensure that this virus is not transmitted to new   the air pollution they create and because the bottom ash, or
        human  beings.  The  other  side  of  the  portray  is  the   clinker, is hard to keep under control. Incineration is often
        accumulating medical waste. In the coming days, the demand   the  best  technology  for  treating  medical  waste.  It  can
        for the sustainable medical waste management will certainly   eliminate pathogens - even hard-to-kill bacterial spores - and
        rise. [3]                                              can  reduce  the  volume  and  mass  of  waste  that  goes  to
                                                               landfills  considerably.  Incineration  can  break  down  and
        1.1 Warning Bell                                       render harmless hazardous organic chemicals. With proper
                                                               technology,  little  acid  gas  is  released  to  the  atmosphere.
           Wuhan, the major transit hub of China reported the first   Incineration  requires  no  pretreatment.  Because  most
        case of Covid 19 pandemic in early January 2020.The impact   medical waste can be incinerated, the waste does not always
        of the epidemic is well demonstrated by the medical waste   require  sorting  or  separation  prior  to  treatment.
        growth  from  40  ton  per  day  volume  to  240  ton  per  day   Incineration has the benefit of reducing the volume of the
        volume. Each country will certainly face an equal challenge in   waste  by  80  percent  or  more.  The  resulting  incinerated
        the  medical  waste  management.  The  medical  waste   waste can be disposed of in traditional methods, such as
        management of a country depends on several factors like   landfilling.  The  downside  of  incineration  is  potential
        policy  making  and  enforcement,  existing  collection,   pollution from emissions generated during incineration. The
        transportation,  management  facilities,  medical  waste   largest concern associated with incineration is air pollution
        treatment methods and existing excess capacity. [4]    from emissions. Studies reveal that at least 20% of medical
                                                               waste is plastic. Dioxins and furans can be produced when
        1.2 Principal Methods                                  these plastics burn. Another concern is incinerator ash. As
                                                               incinerators  are  designed  or  retrofitted  with  pollution
        Principal methods of medical waste management include   prevention  equipment,  more  of  the  potentially  toxic
        incineration, autoclaving, mechanical/chemical disinfection,   chemicals that previously ended up in emissions now remain
        microwave, irradiation and vitrification. The treated waste, if   in the ash. It is absolutely true that the incineration can be a
        sufficiently sterile, can generally be disposed with waste in a   dirty process if not controlled adequately or if the process
        sanitary landfill, or in some cases discharged into the sewer   has not been designed correctly.
        system. In some countries, treatment of medical waste is


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